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Sunday, December 4, 2016

Halimo Hassen ’17 Named a Schwarzman Scholar

The sociology major will study for a year at Tsinghua University in Beijing.

Halimo Hassen
Halimo Hassen ’17 plans to complete a master’s degree in international affairs, concentrating on public policy. “I’m hoping the scholarship will serve as an experience that will allow me to continue to give back throughout my life,” she says. (Photo by Eli Burakian ’00)

Halimo Hassen ’17, a sociology major from Atlanta, Ga., has been named a Schwarzman Scholar—one of 129 top students from around the world who next year will participate in a one-year master’s program at Tsinghua University in Beijing.

Hassen will be Dartmouth’s third representative to the Schwarzman program, following in the footsteps of Jordyn Turner ’16 and Jacob Gaba ’16, who are members of the program’s inaugural class this year.

“It’s a testament to Dartmouth’s global reach that our students have been represented in the Schwarzman’s first two classes,” says Provost Carolyn Dever. “Halimo is a remarkable student with a passion for public service. That she has been recognized on this international stage should make the entire Dartmouth community proud.”

Founded by Stephen A. Schwarzman, chairman, CEO, and co-founder of the global investment firm Blackstone, the Schwarzman Scholars program seeks prepare a new generation of international leaders “to respond to the geopolitical landscape of the 21st century,” according to the program’s website.

“I was exploring graduate fellowships and the Schwarzman scholarship seemed new, innovative, and placed an emphasis on leadership,” says Hassen. “It’s an opportunity to study in a different country for a year, learn about China as a major world power, and learn a new language in a completely different environment in the process.”

Through the program, Hassen plans to complete a master’s degree in international affairs, concentrating on public policy. “I’m hoping the scholarship will serve as an experience that will allow me to continue to give back throughout my life,” she says.

She was also drawn to the opportunity to shape a new program. “The first few cohorts will define the future of the scholarship, and I wanted to be a part of that,” she says.

At Dartmouth, Hassen—the daughter of Somali and Ethiopian refugees and a first-generation college student—has mentored fellow students through the First Year Student Enrichment Program (FYSEP).

FYSEP director Jay Davis ’90 says, “From the moment I first met Halimo during FYSEP’s pre-orientation program, it was clear that she brings passion, commitment, and compassion to all that she does,” he says. “I have known few students who can match her dedication to making others’ lives better.”

Through her major, she has conducted research on the impact of globalization on Somalia after that country’s civil war and has studied how increasing diversity in work teams can improve business outcomes.

“In the classroom, I appreciated Halimo’s ability to ask pressing and difficult questions while at the same time being lighthearted and genuine with her peers,” says Janice McCabe, an associate professor of sociology, with whom Hassen took two courses, “Sociology of Gender” and “Education and Inequality.” “It was clear that she was interested in exploring inequality from a sociological lens and that she was committed to social justice on campus and globally.”

Hassen has worked as a student manager at the Collis Student Center, and served as secretary and co-director of CoFIRED, the Coalition for Immigration Reform, Equality, and DREAMers—a group that received a Martin Luther King Jr. Social Justice Award in 2014 during her tenure. 

She completed the Harvard Summer Ventures in Management program and participated in the Jumpstart Advisory Group, a program that helps women and members of minority groups build business leadership skills.

She has received scholarships from the Gates Millennium Scholars Program, the GE Reagan Foundation, Coca-Cola, the Horatio Alger Association, and the Ron Brown CAPtain program, and received a Capital One Case Competition prize.

Hassen’s siblings Hassan Hassen ’18 and Ridwan Hassen ’15 have also studied at Dartmouth; Ridwan was named a Rhodes Scholar in 2015. “I am very thankful to my family and my close friends,” Halimo Hassen says. “They have been a tremendous support system and have challenged me to excel in every possible way.”

“Throughout my time in college, I’ve started initiatives that have assisted low-income, high-achieving high school students in the college admissions process,” she says. “In the future, I hope to expand these initiatives to a broader scale and help to work towards ameliorating educational disparities.”

Of those younger students, Hassen says, “I hope to inspire them to dream big and do more.”

About Schwarzman Scholars:

Founded in 2015, Schwarzman Scholars was inspired by the Rhodes Scholarship and is designed to meet the challenges of the 21st century and beyond. Scholars chosen for this highly selective program will live in Beijing for a year of study and cultural immersion, attending lectures, traveling, and developing a better understanding of China.

For information about applying for Schwarzman Scholarships and other programs, and to see a list of past recipients, visit Dartmouth’s National Scholarships/Fellowships website.


Thursday, December 1, 2016

Center for Constitutional Rights Says President Lacks Authority to Detain Prisoner

November 30, 2016, Washington – Today, the Center for Constitutional Rights (CCR) filed a lawsuit challenging the ongoing detention of Guantánamo prisoner Guled Hassan Duran, a 43-year old Somali citizen. Duran was captured in Djibouti and rendered to the CIA in March 2004, according to the declassified executive summary of the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence (SSCI) Study of the CIA’s Detention and Interrogation Program. He was transferred to Guantánamo in September 2006, where he has since been held without charge. The lawsuit challenges the legality of his continuing indefinite detention.
“In the 12 years that Mr. Duran has been held in U.S. custody, neither President Bush nor Obama was willing to charge him with a crime, and yet the government claims the authority to continue imprisoning Mr. Duran indefinitely – perhaps for the rest of his life,” said CCR Legal Director Baher Azmy. “That is an absurd distortion of the constitution and the laws of war. The government will now – finally - have to explain how and why Mr. Duran ended up at Guantánamo, and why he remains there over a decade later.”
Attorneys argue that, whatever the government’s initial justification for detaining Mr. Duran in 2006, that justification has since unraveled. Among other reasons, attorneys point to Mr. Duran’s capture far from the Afghan theater of war in Djibouti, the declared end of U.S. combat operations in Afghanistan, and the reality that any conflict that may persist with the Taliban, Al Qaeda, or successor franchise groups bears no resemblance to the conflict in which the government claims Mr. Duran was captured in 2004. While they do not concede that his detention was ever lawful, attorneys argue that, now, surely, any legitimate reason to detain Mr. Duran has expired under the laws of war.
In January 2010, President Obama’s Guantánamo Task Force designated Mr. Duran for continuing indefinite detention. In August 2016, Mr. Duran appeared before the Periodic Review Board (PRB), which ultimately declined to approve him for release from Guantánamo. The Center for Constitutional Rights criticized the process, noting that he appeared before the PRB without counsel and that the board routinely relies on evidence obtained through torture in making its determination.
For more information and to read today’s filing, visit CCR’s case page.
The Center for Constitutional Rights has led the legal battle over Guantánamo for nearly 15 years – representing clients in two Supreme Court cases and organizing and coordinating hundreds of pro bono lawyers across the country, ensuring that nearly all the men detained at Guantánamo have had the option of legal representation. Among other Guantánamo cases, the Center represents the families of men who died at Guantánamo, and men who have been released and are seeking justice in international courts.

The Center for Constitutional Rights is dedicated to advancing and protecting the rights guaranteed by the United States Constitution and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Founded in 1966 by attorneys who represented civil rights movements in the South, CCR is a non-profit legal and educational organization committed to the creative use of law as a positive force for social change.

Monday, July 4, 2016

Sadaqat al-Fitr made simple

Image result for zakat ul fitr

As this sacred month draws to a close and Eid approaches we could do worse than to think about Sadaqatul-Fitr or Zakatul Fitr as it is sometimes called. Here are some points to understand and remember about the Fiqh of Sadaqatul-Fitr.

What is Sadaqatul-Fitr?

Sadaqatul-Fitr, also called Zakatul-Fitr, is a charitable duty associated with the month of Ramadan and in particular Eid al-Fitr. It is a duty on every Muslim who possesses wealth in excess of his basic needs at the time of Fajr on the day of Eid al-Fitr.
To pay Sadaqatul-Fitr one simply gives the required amount to a deserving recipient or a trusted third party to give on one’s behalf. It is preferred and more appropriate to give it directly to a poor person while on one’s way to the Eid prayer.

A duty

When we say Sadaqatul-Fitr is a duty, we mean it is wajib such that a Muslim who neglects to pay it despite being obligated to do so would be sinful.

Basic Needs

When we speak of basic needs we refer to a legal class or type of wealth. We should remember that wealth doesn’t just refer to money but any possession of value. “Basic needs” refers to any possessions of value that are needed for a normal life.
So wealth considered basic needs would include things like:
  • One’s house
  • One’s car
  • One’s clothing & furniture
The value of these things does not matter, they are considered basic needs as long as they are for one’s use.

Beyond Basic Needs

Yet if one has an excess of these possessions (such as if a family has two cars but only uses one and the other is a showpiece), then if the excess (such as the extra car) is valued more than the nisab of Zakat then Sadaqatul-Fitr would be wajib on the owner of the car.
A rare stamp collection or an art collection are other examples of wealth beyond one’s basic needs.
If the value of excess wealth is more than the nisab of Zakat (the value of approximately 87.48g of gold) and one owns this wealth at Fajr on Eid al-Fitr day then Sadaqatul-Fitr is wajib.

Who Do I Pay For?

Oneself and Small Children

One pays Sadaqatul-Fitr on behalf of oneself and each of one’s children who have not yet become legally adult (which occurs at puberty).
One is not required to pay Sadaqatul-Fitr for one’s spouse. Each spouse is responsible for their own Sadaqatul-Fitr. Yet if one spouse pays on behalf of another it is valid.
One is only obliged to pay on behalf of the children one has at the time of Fajr on the day of Eid al-Fitr.
If a child is born after fajr on the day of Eid then one is not obliged to pay on behalf of that child though there is no harm in doing so.

How Much Do I Pay?

Wheat or wheat flour may be given or barley, barley flour, dates, or raisins:
  • If wheat or wheat flour is given then one gives 2kg of the flour/grain.
  • If barley, barley flour, dates, or raisins is given then one gives 4kg of the flour/grain/fruit.

May I Give Money Instead?

Yes, one may give one’s sadaqa in money. One has the option to:
  • Give the monetary equivalent of 2kg of wheat or wheat flour or the monetary equivalent of 4kg of barley, barley flour, dates, or raisins.
  • or give the monetary equivalent of 4kg of any other grain.

Money or Food

As mentioned, one may give one’s sadaqa in money or the actual grain/food whichever is better for the poor.
In situations of famine or a shortage of the actual foodstuff then it is better to give the foodstuff but under normal circumstances money is better.

Who Do I Pay it To?

Sadaqa is for the Poor

Sadaqatul-Fitr may only be given to the poor. Unlike Zakat, it may be given to poor Muslims as well as poor non-Muslims.
A poor person is one who does not possess wealth in excess of his basic needs that exceeds the value of the nisab of Zakat (approximately 87.48g of gold).
Remember: Basic Needs
Basic needs includes things like:
  • One’s house
  • One’s car
  • One’s clothing & furniture
If apart from these types of things an individual does not possess wealth valued more than approximately 87.48g of gold then that individual is poor.
Because of the nature of basic needs, it should be noted that it is possible for someone to own a house, a car, furniture and clothing and still be poor.
One does not need to “investigate” to determine whether an individual is poor or not. If the individual seems to be poor (such as a beggar), or one is familiar with their financial circumstances and is reasonably sure that they are poor then one may give one’s sadaqa.

Give Willingly

When we give Sadaqatul-Fitr or any other charity it should be given willingly and happily and we should consider that the poor are helping us by accepting from our wealth. We should give with the objective of not being attached to possessions, seeking the pleasure of Allah, Most High, asking for His acceptance.

His Acceptance

We ask Allah, Most High, to accept from us all that we have put forward in this noble month and to make us among those drawn closer to Him, Most High.

Source: QaysArthur.net

Sadaqat al-Fitr made simple

Image result for zakat ul fitr

As this sacred month draws to a close and Eid approaches we could do worse than to think about Sadaqatul-Fitr or Zakatul Fitr as it is sometimes called. Here are some points to understand and remember about the Fiqh of Sadaqatul-Fitr.

What is Sadaqatul-Fitr?

Sadaqatul-Fitr, also called Zakatul-Fitr, is a charitable duty associated with the month of Ramadan and in particular Eid al-Fitr. It is a duty on every Muslim who possesses wealth in excess of his basic needs at the time of Fajr on the day of Eid al-Fitr.
To pay Sadaqatul-Fitr one simply gives the required amount to a deserving recipient or a trusted third party to give on one’s behalf. It is preferred and more appropriate to give it directly to a poor person while on one’s way to the Eid prayer.

A duty

When we say Sadaqatul-Fitr is a duty, we mean it is wajib such that a Muslim who neglects to pay it despite being obligated to do so would be sinful.

Basic Needs

When we speak of basic needs we refer to a legal class or type of wealth. We should remember that wealth doesn’t just refer to money but any possession of value. “Basic needs” refers to any possessions of value that are needed for a normal life.
So wealth considered basic needs would include things like:
  • One’s house
  • One’s car
  • One’s clothing & furniture
The value of these things does not matter, they are considered basic needs as long as they are for one’s use.

Beyond Basic Needs

Yet if one has an excess of these possessions (such as if a family has two cars but only uses one and the other is a showpiece), then if the excess (such as the extra car) is valued more than the nisab of Zakat then Sadaqatul-Fitr would be wajib on the owner of the car.
A rare stamp collection or an art collection are other examples of wealth beyond one’s basic needs.
If the value of excess wealth is more than the nisab of Zakat (the value of approximately 87.48g of gold) and one owns this wealth at Fajr on Eid al-Fitr day then Sadaqatul-Fitr is wajib.

Who Do I Pay For?

Oneself and Small Children

One pays Sadaqatul-Fitr on behalf of oneself and each of one’s children who have not yet become legally adult (which occurs at puberty).
One is not required to pay Sadaqatul-Fitr for one’s spouse. Each spouse is responsible for their own Sadaqatul-Fitr. Yet if one spouse pays on behalf of another it is valid.
One is only obliged to pay on behalf of the children one has at the time of Fajr on the day of Eid al-Fitr.
If a child is born after fajr on the day of Eid then one is not obliged to pay on behalf of that child though there is no harm in doing so.

How Much Do I Pay?

Wheat or wheat flour may be given or barley, barley flour, dates, or raisins:
  • If wheat or wheat flour is given then one gives 2kg of the flour/grain.
  • If barley, barley flour, dates, or raisins is given then one gives 4kg of the flour/grain/fruit.

May I Give Money Instead?

Yes, one may give one’s sadaqa in money. One has the option to:
  • Give the monetary equivalent of 2kg of wheat or wheat flour or the monetary equivalent of 4kg of barley, barley flour, dates, or raisins.
  • or give the monetary equivalent of 4kg of any other grain.

Money or Food

As mentioned, one may give one’s sadaqa in money or the actual grain/food whichever is better for the poor.
In situations of famine or a shortage of the actual foodstuff then it is better to give the foodstuff but under normal circumstances money is better.

Who Do I Pay it To?

Sadaqa is for the Poor

Sadaqatul-Fitr may only be given to the poor. Unlike Zakat, it may be given to poor Muslims as well as poor non-Muslims.
A poor person is one who does not possess wealth in excess of his basic needs that exceeds the value of the nisab of Zakat (approximately 87.48g of gold).
Remember: Basic Needs
Basic needs includes things like:
  • One’s house
  • One’s car
  • One’s clothing & furniture
If apart from these types of things an individual does not possess wealth valued more than approximately 87.48g of gold then that individual is poor.
Because of the nature of basic needs, it should be noted that it is possible for someone to own a house, a car, furniture and clothing and still be poor.
One does not need to “investigate” to determine whether an individual is poor or not. If the individual seems to be poor (such as a beggar), or one is familiar with their financial circumstances and is reasonably sure that they are poor then one may give one’s sadaqa.

Give Willingly

When we give Sadaqatul-Fitr or any other charity it should be given willingly and happily and we should consider that the poor are helping us by accepting from our wealth. We should give with the objective of not being attached to possessions, seeking the pleasure of Allah, Most High, asking for His acceptance.

His Acceptance

We ask Allah, Most High, to accept from us all that we have put forward in this noble month and to make us among those drawn closer to Him, Most High.

Source: QaysArthur.net

Sadaqat al-Fitr made simple

Image result for zakat ul fitr

As this sacred month draws to a close and Eid approaches we could do worse than to think about Sadaqatul-Fitr or Zakatul Fitr as it is sometimes called. Here are some points to understand and remember about the Fiqh of Sadaqatul-Fitr.

What is Sadaqatul-Fitr?

Sadaqatul-Fitr, also called Zakatul-Fitr, is a charitable duty associated with the month of Ramadan and in particular Eid al-Fitr. It is a duty on every Muslim who possesses wealth in excess of his basic needs at the time of Fajr on the day of Eid al-Fitr.
To pay Sadaqatul-Fitr one simply gives the required amount to a deserving recipient or a trusted third party to give on one’s behalf. It is preferred and more appropriate to give it directly to a poor person while on one’s way to the Eid prayer.

A duty

When we say Sadaqatul-Fitr is a duty, we mean it is wajib such that a Muslim who neglects to pay it despite being obligated to do so would be sinful.

Basic Needs

When we speak of basic needs we refer to a legal class or type of wealth. We should remember that wealth doesn’t just refer to money but any possession of value. “Basic needs” refers to any possessions of value that are needed for a normal life.
So wealth considered basic needs would include things like:
  • One’s house
  • One’s car
  • One’s clothing & furniture
The value of these things does not matter, they are considered basic needs as long as they are for one’s use.

Beyond Basic Needs

Yet if one has an excess of these possessions (such as if a family has two cars but only uses one and the other is a showpiece), then if the excess (such as the extra car) is valued more than the nisab of Zakat then Sadaqatul-Fitr would be wajib on the owner of the car.
A rare stamp collection or an art collection are other examples of wealth beyond one’s basic needs.
If the value of excess wealth is more than the nisab of Zakat (the value of approximately 87.48g of gold) and one owns this wealth at Fajr on Eid al-Fitr day then Sadaqatul-Fitr is wajib.

Who Do I Pay For?

Oneself and Small Children

One pays Sadaqatul-Fitr on behalf of oneself and each of one’s children who have not yet become legally adult (which occurs at puberty).
One is not required to pay Sadaqatul-Fitr for one’s spouse. Each spouse is responsible for their own Sadaqatul-Fitr. Yet if one spouse pays on behalf of another it is valid.
One is only obliged to pay on behalf of the children one has at the time of Fajr on the day of Eid al-Fitr.
If a child is born after fajr on the day of Eid then one is not obliged to pay on behalf of that child though there is no harm in doing so.

How Much Do I Pay?

Wheat or wheat flour may be given or barley, barley flour, dates, or raisins:
  • If wheat or wheat flour is given then one gives 2kg of the flour/grain.
  • If barley, barley flour, dates, or raisins is given then one gives 4kg of the flour/grain/fruit.

May I Give Money Instead?

Yes, one may give one’s sadaqa in money. One has the option to:
  • Give the monetary equivalent of 2kg of wheat or wheat flour or the monetary equivalent of 4kg of barley, barley flour, dates, or raisins.
  • or give the monetary equivalent of 4kg of any other grain.

Money or Food

As mentioned, one may give one’s sadaqa in money or the actual grain/food whichever is better for the poor.
In situations of famine or a shortage of the actual foodstuff then it is better to give the foodstuff but under normal circumstances money is better.

Who Do I Pay it To?

Sadaqa is for the Poor

Sadaqatul-Fitr may only be given to the poor. Unlike Zakat, it may be given to poor Muslims as well as poor non-Muslims.
A poor person is one who does not possess wealth in excess of his basic needs that exceeds the value of the nisab of Zakat (approximately 87.48g of gold).
Remember: Basic Needs
Basic needs includes things like:
  • One’s house
  • One’s car
  • One’s clothing & furniture
If apart from these types of things an individual does not possess wealth valued more than approximately 87.48g of gold then that individual is poor.
Because of the nature of basic needs, it should be noted that it is possible for someone to own a house, a car, furniture and clothing and still be poor.
One does not need to “investigate” to determine whether an individual is poor or not. If the individual seems to be poor (such as a beggar), or one is familiar with their financial circumstances and is reasonably sure that they are poor then one may give one’s sadaqa.

Give Willingly

When we give Sadaqatul-Fitr or any other charity it should be given willingly and happily and we should consider that the poor are helping us by accepting from our wealth. We should give with the objective of not being attached to possessions, seeking the pleasure of Allah, Most High, asking for His acceptance.

His Acceptance

We ask Allah, Most High, to accept from us all that we have put forward in this noble month and to make us among those drawn closer to Him, Most High.

Source: QaysArthur.net

Sadaqat al-Fitr made simple

Image result for zakat ul fitr

As this sacred month draws to a close and Eid approaches we could do worse than to think about Sadaqatul-Fitr or Zakatul Fitr as it is sometimes called. Here are some points to understand and remember about the Fiqh of Sadaqatul-Fitr.

What is Sadaqatul-Fitr?

Sadaqatul-Fitr, also called Zakatul-Fitr, is a charitable duty associated with the month of Ramadan and in particular Eid al-Fitr. It is a duty on every Muslim who possesses wealth in excess of his basic needs at the time of Fajr on the day of Eid al-Fitr.
To pay Sadaqatul-Fitr one simply gives the required amount to a deserving recipient or a trusted third party to give on one’s behalf. It is preferred and more appropriate to give it directly to a poor person while on one’s way to the Eid prayer.

A duty

When we say Sadaqatul-Fitr is a duty, we mean it is wajib such that a Muslim who neglects to pay it despite being obligated to do so would be sinful.

Basic Needs

When we speak of basic needs we refer to a legal class or type of wealth. We should remember that wealth doesn’t just refer to money but any possession of value. “Basic needs” refers to any possessions of value that are needed for a normal life.
So wealth considered basic needs would include things like:
  • One’s house
  • One’s car
  • One’s clothing & furniture
The value of these things does not matter, they are considered basic needs as long as they are for one’s use.

Beyond Basic Needs

Yet if one has an excess of these possessions (such as if a family has two cars but only uses one and the other is a showpiece), then if the excess (such as the extra car) is valued more than the nisab of Zakat then Sadaqatul-Fitr would be wajib on the owner of the car.
A rare stamp collection or an art collection are other examples of wealth beyond one’s basic needs.
If the value of excess wealth is more than the nisab of Zakat (the value of approximately 87.48g of gold) and one owns this wealth at Fajr on Eid al-Fitr day then Sadaqatul-Fitr is wajib.

Who Do I Pay For?

Oneself and Small Children

One pays Sadaqatul-Fitr on behalf of oneself and each of one’s children who have not yet become legally adult (which occurs at puberty).
One is not required to pay Sadaqatul-Fitr for one’s spouse. Each spouse is responsible for their own Sadaqatul-Fitr. Yet if one spouse pays on behalf of another it is valid.
One is only obliged to pay on behalf of the children one has at the time of Fajr on the day of Eid al-Fitr.
If a child is born after fajr on the day of Eid then one is not obliged to pay on behalf of that child though there is no harm in doing so.

How Much Do I Pay?

Wheat or wheat flour may be given or barley, barley flour, dates, or raisins:
  • If wheat or wheat flour is given then one gives 2kg of the flour/grain.
  • If barley, barley flour, dates, or raisins is given then one gives 4kg of the flour/grain/fruit.

May I Give Money Instead?

Yes, one may give one’s sadaqa in money. One has the option to:
  • Give the monetary equivalent of 2kg of wheat or wheat flour or the monetary equivalent of 4kg of barley, barley flour, dates, or raisins.
  • or give the monetary equivalent of 4kg of any other grain.

Money or Food

As mentioned, one may give one’s sadaqa in money or the actual grain/food whichever is better for the poor.
In situations of famine or a shortage of the actual foodstuff then it is better to give the foodstuff but under normal circumstances money is better.

Who Do I Pay it To?

Sadaqa is for the Poor

Sadaqatul-Fitr may only be given to the poor. Unlike Zakat, it may be given to poor Muslims as well as poor non-Muslims.
A poor person is one who does not possess wealth in excess of his basic needs that exceeds the value of the nisab of Zakat (approximately 87.48g of gold).
Remember: Basic Needs
Basic needs includes things like:
  • One’s house
  • One’s car
  • One’s clothing & furniture
If apart from these types of things an individual does not possess wealth valued more than approximately 87.48g of gold then that individual is poor.
Because of the nature of basic needs, it should be noted that it is possible for someone to own a house, a car, furniture and clothing and still be poor.
One does not need to “investigate” to determine whether an individual is poor or not. If the individual seems to be poor (such as a beggar), or one is familiar with their financial circumstances and is reasonably sure that they are poor then one may give one’s sadaqa.

Give Willingly

When we give Sadaqatul-Fitr or any other charity it should be given willingly and happily and we should consider that the poor are helping us by accepting from our wealth. We should give with the objective of not being attached to possessions, seeking the pleasure of Allah, Most High, asking for His acceptance.

His Acceptance

We ask Allah, Most High, to accept from us all that we have put forward in this noble month and to make us among those drawn closer to Him, Most High.

Source: QaysArthur.net

Sadaqat al-Fitr made simple

Image result for zakat ul fitr

As this sacred month draws to a close and Eid approaches we could do worse than to think about Sadaqatul-Fitr or Zakatul Fitr as it is sometimes called. Here are some points to understand and remember about the Fiqh of Sadaqatul-Fitr.

What is Sadaqatul-Fitr?

Sadaqatul-Fitr, also called Zakatul-Fitr, is a charitable duty associated with the month of Ramadan and in particular Eid al-Fitr. It is a duty on every Muslim who possesses wealth in excess of his basic needs at the time of Fajr on the day of Eid al-Fitr.
To pay Sadaqatul-Fitr one simply gives the required amount to a deserving recipient or a trusted third party to give on one’s behalf. It is preferred and more appropriate to give it directly to a poor person while on one’s way to the Eid prayer.

A duty

When we say Sadaqatul-Fitr is a duty, we mean it is wajib such that a Muslim who neglects to pay it despite being obligated to do so would be sinful.

Basic Needs

When we speak of basic needs we refer to a legal class or type of wealth. We should remember that wealth doesn’t just refer to money but any possession of value. “Basic needs” refers to any possessions of value that are needed for a normal life.
So wealth considered basic needs would include things like:
  • One’s house
  • One’s car
  • One’s clothing & furniture
The value of these things does not matter, they are considered basic needs as long as they are for one’s use.

Beyond Basic Needs

Yet if one has an excess of these possessions (such as if a family has two cars but only uses one and the other is a showpiece), then if the excess (such as the extra car) is valued more than the nisab of Zakat then Sadaqatul-Fitr would be wajib on the owner of the car.
A rare stamp collection or an art collection are other examples of wealth beyond one’s basic needs.
If the value of excess wealth is more than the nisab of Zakat (the value of approximately 87.48g of gold) and one owns this wealth at Fajr on Eid al-Fitr day then Sadaqatul-Fitr is wajib.

Who Do I Pay For?

Oneself and Small Children

One pays Sadaqatul-Fitr on behalf of oneself and each of one’s children who have not yet become legally adult (which occurs at puberty).
One is not required to pay Sadaqatul-Fitr for one’s spouse. Each spouse is responsible for their own Sadaqatul-Fitr. Yet if one spouse pays on behalf of another it is valid.
One is only obliged to pay on behalf of the children one has at the time of Fajr on the day of Eid al-Fitr.
If a child is born after fajr on the day of Eid then one is not obliged to pay on behalf of that child though there is no harm in doing so.

How Much Do I Pay?

Wheat or wheat flour may be given or barley, barley flour, dates, or raisins:
  • If wheat or wheat flour is given then one gives 2kg of the flour/grain.
  • If barley, barley flour, dates, or raisins is given then one gives 4kg of the flour/grain/fruit.

May I Give Money Instead?

Yes, one may give one’s sadaqa in money. One has the option to:
  • Give the monetary equivalent of 2kg of wheat or wheat flour or the monetary equivalent of 4kg of barley, barley flour, dates, or raisins.
  • or give the monetary equivalent of 4kg of any other grain.

Money or Food

As mentioned, one may give one’s sadaqa in money or the actual grain/food whichever is better for the poor.
In situations of famine or a shortage of the actual foodstuff then it is better to give the foodstuff but under normal circumstances money is better.

Who Do I Pay it To?

Sadaqa is for the Poor

Sadaqatul-Fitr may only be given to the poor. Unlike Zakat, it may be given to poor Muslims as well as poor non-Muslims.
A poor person is one who does not possess wealth in excess of his basic needs that exceeds the value of the nisab of Zakat (approximately 87.48g of gold).
Remember: Basic Needs
Basic needs includes things like:
  • One’s house
  • One’s car
  • One’s clothing & furniture
If apart from these types of things an individual does not possess wealth valued more than approximately 87.48g of gold then that individual is poor.
Because of the nature of basic needs, it should be noted that it is possible for someone to own a house, a car, furniture and clothing and still be poor.
One does not need to “investigate” to determine whether an individual is poor or not. If the individual seems to be poor (such as a beggar), or one is familiar with their financial circumstances and is reasonably sure that they are poor then one may give one’s sadaqa.

Give Willingly

When we give Sadaqatul-Fitr or any other charity it should be given willingly and happily and we should consider that the poor are helping us by accepting from our wealth. We should give with the objective of not being attached to possessions, seeking the pleasure of Allah, Most High, asking for His acceptance.

His Acceptance

We ask Allah, Most High, to accept from us all that we have put forward in this noble month and to make us among those drawn closer to Him, Most High.

Source: QaysArthur.net